Seville’s history begins during the Antiquity, with the emergence in the current center of Seville of the first built-up area identified with the Tartesic culture, which, after its destruction attributed to the Carthaginians, passed the Roman city of Seville. During the Visigoth kingdom in some occasions the court had place.
In To The Andalus (the Moslem Spain) Seville was the head quarter office and later the capital the kingdom of factions, which there was incorporated into the Christian Crown of Castilla under Fernando III the Saint, first in being buried in the cathedral.
Since then Seville repopulated by the Castilian aristocracy like capital of the kingdom was one of the cities with vote in courts, will lodge in numerous occasions the itinerant court. The Low Middle Age placed the city, its port and its active colony of Genoese merchants in a peripheral but important position in the European international trade; at the time that he was suffering dramatic demographic and social economic convulsions (Black Pest of 1348, anti-Jewish riot of 1391).
After the conquest of America, Seville turned into the economic center of the Spanish Empire, having monopolized the commerce trans-oceanic (House of Hiring of the Indies); opening to him the real Golden Age of the arts and the letters. Coinciding with its most brilliant moment (the baroque), the XVIIth century meant an economic and demographic decline, at the time that the navigation by the Guadalquivir become difficult and the commercial monopoly and its institutions move to Cadiz.
The revitalization of the city in the XIXth century (industrialization, railroad) coincides with the romantic epoch. The XXth century, in addition to the tragic civil war, attended decisive milestones (Latin-American Exhibition of 1929 and Universal Exhibition of 1992) and its election as capital of the Andalusian autonomy.
The tradition says that about approximately 3.000 years the Phoenician navigator Melkart would cover the Mediterranean and would found Kart-tago in the North of Africa. Later, it crossed the Strait of Gibraltar entering the Atlantic Ocean. It would cover the coast and would found Gádir and then it would mend the Guadalquivir until Melkart comes where at present there is Seville, where it would found a commercial factory in an island that was in the space where at present they are the Plaza del Salvador, the Cuesta del Rosario and the Plaza de Pescadería. For its prowesses, it would be recognized like demigod by the Phoenician culture, he would pass to the Greek mythology for Heracles and, later, to the Roman as Hércules. The Strait of Gibraltar called itself in the Hellenic period the Columns of Hércules.
Archaeological digs carried out in 2009 in the Real Citadel dated in the VIIIth century B.C. the found remains. Later investigations based in analytical of ceramics and the test of the Carbon 14 stated remains of the IXth century.
The native ones were calling Spal or Ispal to this town, in which influences crossed turdetanas (name that the Romans gave to the indigenous peoples of the Vale of the Guadalquivir), tartésicas (name that the Greeks gave to the indigenous kingdom that would control the area), Phoenicia (the settlers originated from Phoenicia), and Carthaginian (the originated ones from Carthage, North African colony founded by the Phoenicians).
The primitive Seville received influences of the Phoenician merchants, prospering and developing culturally with the pacific contribution of these. This commercial colonization changed drastically from the leading role reached by the Carthaginian ones after the fall of the metropolis Phoenicia before the Persian empire (VIth century B.C.). This new phase of the punic colonization was implying the territorial penetration by means of the military conquest, what the later Greek sources interpret as the Tartessos destruction after a struggle to death with Carthage, affecting the Seville of the Cuesta del Rosario, being during the course of the different battles when the city succumbed, supposing this way the end of the epoch tartésica in Seville.
The Roman troops enter 206 B.C., during the Second Punic War, under the orders of general Escipión and finish with the Carthaginians who were inhabiting and defending the region, being its successors in the peninsular south. The general founded Italic, in the nearby Santiponce locality, on two hills.
Later, in the place that would be the current city of Seville, Julius Caesar founded the “Cologne Iulia Romula Seville”, latinizando the name of the original indigenous town of the city (“Ispal) in Seville, adding to him “Julia” for its own name and “Rómula” for that of Rome, habitual formula in the toponymy of the Roman colonies.
“Hispalim Caesar Iulius condidit, quae ex-suo et Romae urbis vocabulo Iuliam Romulam nuncupavit. Hispalim autem to situ cognominata est, eo quod in only palustri suffixis in deep palis locata sit, ne lubricated atque instabili foundation cederet.”
Gradually Seville was consolidated like one of the most important industrial centers of the Andalusia, while the near Italic one was formed like authentically Roman residential city in which the emperor Trajano was born.
Remains of the aqueduct of Seville, the third arcade.
In 49 B.C., Seville was possessing wall and forum, with mercantile port activity. With the advent of the empire, Seville turned in capital of one of the juridical convents of the Baetica, senatorial province which capital was Corduba.
The area about the current Square of the Alfalfa there was constituting the meeting point of the thistle maximus who was passing from north on south, from the current church of Santa Catalina up to the street Abbots and the biggest Decumano that was passing of this one on west from the current church of San Esteban on Aguilas street up to the Salvador square. In this area they were the forum of the Roman imperial epoch, which was comprising temples, spa public buildings and markets. According to one of the different transcriptions of a text of the poet Ausonio, Seville might be the eleventh city in the hierarchy of the High Empire (293 A.D.), although another transcription of this original text of Ausonio found in Paris, he speaks about Augusta Emerita as about this eleventh city of Empire.
In the middle of the IInd century A.D. there was a pair of attempts of invasion on the part of the Moors (mauris), that were expelled finally by Roman archers.
The Christianity came soon to the city and in the IIIrd century there were martyred the Holy sisters Justa and Rufina (some of the current bosses the city), according to the legend, for not wanting to adore Astarté.
In the Vth century the city was taken successively by several Germanic invaders: the vandal ones of Gunderico in the year 426; the suebis governed by Requila in the year 441; and finally the visigoths, who would control it until the VIIIth century, during a time defied by the Byzantine presence on the Mediterranean coast.
After the defeat before the Francs (507), the kingdom visigoth left its ancient capital (Toulouse, to the north of the Pyrenees) and he was gaining area to the different villages that were distributed by the whole Hispanic territory, moving the real residence to different cities until it was fixed in Toledo. During the reigns of Amalarico, Teudis and Teudiselo, it was decided in favor of Seville. The latter king was murdered, in a banquet, by the Sevillian noblemen, episode known as the dinner of the sails (549). The cause is debated, being able to be a reflex of the division of communities between the hispanorromanos and the visigoths (the Andalusia was a territory with major inclination to this difference expression that the peninsular center), or even a conspiracy of noble visigoths.
Seville happened to be called Spali. After the short reign of Teudiselo, successor of Teudis, Agila I was chosen in 549. The visigoths were immersed in internal struggles when the Byzantine emperor Justiniano I was useful to try to conquer the whole Andalusia. After multiple struggles and the defeat of several leaders, the Goths managed to be done by every corner of the region, being Leovigildo, in 584, the designated one to reign. In 585, its son Hermenegildo turned to the Catholicism – opposite to the Arianism of previous kings – and he was autoproclaimed a king in the city, being infuriated against its father. One tells that Leovigildo made change the course of the Guadalquivir, cutting the water step to the least arm of the river that was circulating along the current Alameda de Hércules by force of hindering its step to provoke the drought the inhabitants. In 586, its another son Recaredo gained access to the throne and Seville happened to enjoy him of an epoch of big prosperity.
In times of the visigoths two Sevillian prelates stood out, both brothers and canonized like holy: San Leandro and San Isidoro. San Leandro, in addition to an intense work reformer of the regular and secular clergy, converted to Catholicism Hermenegildo, viceroy of the Andalusia and son of king Leovigildo (arriano) against the one that initiated an uprising supported by the Hispanic-Roman nobility, after whose defeat was executed. After the death of Leovigildo, Leandro had an out-standing role in III Council of Toledo-589 – where new king Recaredo was converted definitely to Catholicism with the whole visigoth nobility. San Isidoro wrote an encyclopedic set of twenty books known as Etymologies that were shutting up the whole knowledge of the ancient Greco-Roman culture (medicine, music, astronomy, theology, etc.) of big influence medieval 12 in the whole Europe.
Muse, accompanied by its son Abd to the-Aziz ibn Mussa, crossed the Strait with an army of 18.000 men and Visigoth proceeded to the conquest of the territory. It occupied Medina-Sidonia, Carmona and Seville, and then, it attacked Merida, putting place to the city, which resisted one year (June the 30th of 713). Moslem prince Abd to the-Aziz ibn Mussa, took Seville after a long siege. Up to its murder to hands of its cousins in 716, Seville was doing the capital times of Al-Ándalus (the name that received the Iberian Peninsula as province of the Islamic Empire). From this moment the government head office moved to Cordoba with the status of Emirate (independent from Abderramán I-773 – and turned into Caliphate with Abderramán III-929-). Seville would be a head of a quarter.
During this epoch of Moslem domain there grew enormously the cultural wealth of Seville, which name was arabizado like Isbiliya. There was favored the expansion of the Moslem religion by means of authorizations to the Christians who were turning to the Islam (muladíes) and who were not enjoying that Christian (Mozarabs) were remaining. The Mozarabs were calling the city Ixbilia, name that derived in Sivilia and in Seville that has come to the actuality.
For the years 830 the Ad-Abbas mosque was constructed, that at present occupies the church of El Salvador.
On October the 1st of 844, being most of the Iberian peninsula controlled by the Emirate of Cordoba, a group of approximately 80 ships Vikings, after having tried to plunder Asturias, Galicia and Lisbon (city that they obtained to its return), climbed for the Guadalquivir up to coming to Seville, it attacked the city for seven days causing a big number of human falls and doing numerous hostages with the intention of asking for rescue, – another group stayed in Cadiz for loot. While the money was coming, there continued waiting in the Least Island or Qabtîl (one of the islands of the river). Meanwhile, the emir of Cordoba, Abderramán II, prepared a contingent to face them. On November 11 a pitched battle settled in the Tablada areas. The results were catastrophic for the invaders, who suffered thousand falls; four hundred were made prisoners and executed, approximately thirty ships were destroyed, being the liberated hostages. With the time, the limited number of survivors turned to the Islam, settling like farmers in the area of Coria of the Rio, Carmona and Moron, devoting itself to the cattle and production of dairy products (origin of the reputable Sevillian cheeses). The Vikings realized several incursions more in the years 859, 966 and 971, but with intentions more diplomatic than conquering; although an attempt of conquest in the year 971 remained frustrated, being the fleet vikinga completely annihilated.
During this epoch of Moslem domain there grew enormously the cultural wealth of Seville, which name was arabizado like Isbiliya. The city was depending on the Emirate and later on the Caliphate of Cordova. After the fall of the caliphate it reached the independence and it was a capital of one of the more powerful kingdoms of factions, from 1023 until 1091 governed by the family of the abadíes. Meanwhile, the Christians were showing themselves often threatening between the kingdoms factions, and in the year 1063, in one of the Christian incursions under control of Fernando I of Castile they discovered the weak military force that the above mentioned kingdoms were possessing. This way, without scarcely resistance, to a few years the Sevillian king Al-Mutamid had to buy the peace and pay an annual tax, turning Seville for the first time into taxpayer of Castile.
From the ends of the XIth century and until the middle of the XIIth century the factions kingdoms were unified under the Almoravid ones (of Saharan origin). After the subsidence of the Almoravid empire, in 1151 the city was absorbed by the Almohad Empire (of Maghrebi origin). These epochs were flourishing economically and artistically for Seville: they constructed themselves the Weather vane, the Citadel and the boats bridge to join Triana with Seville, 12 and merchants of Genoa settled and of Pisa.
In 1247, the Christian king Fernando III of Castilla and León initiated the Conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaen and Cordoba, he took possession of the populations of the environment, like Carmona, Lora del Río and Alcala of the Rio, being located the army in the proximities of the city. The siege extended for fifteen months. The decisive action was carried out, in May, 1248, by Ramón de Bonifaz, who mended the Guadalquivir, breaking the bridge that was connecting Seville with Triana and that was allowing the supplying of the city across the Aljarafe. The city gave up on November the 23rd of 1248.
Although there did not exist cardinal perm (Burgos and Toledo were disputing the priority, but the real residence and the court were itinerant), from this moment Seville was one of the cities that with more frequency they were lodging to the court. On May the 30th of 1252 king Fernando III died in the Citadel, being its body the first one that required appointment buried in the building, earlier used like major mosque and of that time like cathedral, under an epitaph in four languages (Latin, Spanish, Arabic and Hebrew) that was doing honor to its King’s nickname of three religions. Fernando III the Saint was canonized in 1671 and its festivity, on May 30, it is a local holiday of Seville, for being its holy boss.
During the reign of Alfonso X the Wise person, Seville was one of the capitals of its kingdoms, since the capital status was rotating between the cities of Toledo, Burgos and Seville. In this epoch the Parish of Santa Ann was constructed in Triana, the Gothic Palace of the Real Citadels of Seville and the Tower of don Fadrique. In 1253 the monarch founded a General Study or University, which had no continuity, by what the current University of Seville is considered to be founded in 1505. Also the monarch is buried in the Real Chapel of the Cathedral, I moderate where also there are the relics known as the Alphonsine Stage (not to confuse with the book homonym). Also there are of Alphonsine epoch the Marian images of the Virgin of the Kings and the Virgin of the Head office. Also several Songs of Santa Maria mention the city and the Kingdom of Sevilla.
The following reigns, from that of Alfonso X the Wise person up to that of Peter I Cruel they were of habitual presence of the court in Seville. Alfonso granted to the city its emblem (NO-madeja-DO for its loyalty during the rebellion of its son Sancho). During this time numerous churches constructions were tackled, not this way the works of the cathedral that began in 1433.
The battle of the Salty one (1340) produced the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar to the naval commerce between the south and the north of Europe and an every time major presence of Italian and Flemish merchants in Seville, key point for the insertion of the southern routes of the Crown of Castilla in these routes. The black Pest of 1348, the big earthquake of the year 1355 (that it caused victims and serious damage in numerous buildings) and the demographic and economic consequences of the crisis of the XIVth century affected the city of very marked form. The worsening of the social conflicts found a leakage route in the anti-Jewish riot of 1391, caused by the anti-Semitic preaching of the archdeacon of Écija, Ferrán Martínez. The Jewry of Seville, one of the most numerous Hebrew communities of the Peninsula, practically disappeared because of the murders and the conversions masivas. Since then it is the converted community of the new Christians the one that will inherit the scapegoat condition.
During the XVth century Seville experienced a big growth, turning its population and reaching a size similar to that of Florence. It was the biggest city of the crowns of Castilla and Aragon, and its kingdom was reaching port between 15 and 20 % of all the Castilian taxes. It had a producing industry of soap, shipyards and the mint more important of it crown.
During a stay of Reyes Católicos in Seville (1477) that, to demand of the Sevillian Dominican Alonso de Hojeda, impelled the foundation of the Spanish Inquisition. The city was chosen for the first faith car (February 6, 1481), in which six persons were burned alive. In 1483 there were expelled few Jews who were staying in the city, nine years before the Decree of general Expulsion. On the contrary a large number remained in Seville of converted, at least 2000 families.
The discovery of the New World in 1492 was very significant for the city, which would turn into the European exit port towards America. It was a cosmopolitan and universal city. Seville was already at the end of the XVth century one of the main Castilian ports in the commerce, principally with England, Flanders and Genoa. The Islamic minority suffered a hard blow in 1502, when the Mudejars were forced to convert to Christianity, being called Moriscos who did it, there being achieved this way the religious unit as base of the national unit.
The Port of the Indies of Seville happened to be the main linkage port with America maintaining an artificial monopoly as route of entry and exit of the Indies by means of a seat granted by real decree. For its administration, Reyes Católicos founded the House of Hiring of the Indies in 1502, where from they were going and hiring the trips, they were controlling the wealth’s that were entering of America and, together with the Merchants’ University, there were regulating the mercantile, scientific and judicial relations with New World 20 This bore a big urban expansion overcoming 100 000 inhabitants from the middle of the XVIth century and coming to 129 400 inhabitants in 1588,21 turning in the biggest city of Spain and better urbanized than the epoch, emphasizing its streets bricked or cobbled.
During the XVIth century Seville experiences a big development, it is the excellent monumental century of Seville; because thanks to the Guadalquivir and the port of Seville named in those times port of the Indies they impel the period of maximum splendor after the discovery of America in 1492.
The most important buildings of the historical center are of this epoch: Cathedral (finished in 1506); Market, that later, Carlos III arranged its adaptation to lodge the File of the Indies, Weather vane (belfry and Giraldillo: 1560-1568), Town hall (1527-1564), Hospital of Five Ulcers (1544-1601), church of the Announcement (1565-1578), Hearing (1595-1597), the Mint (1585-87) and other new buildings as the House Pilatos, the Palace of the Proprietors or the Church of the Salvador.
In turn it was turning into a metropolis with consulates of all the countries of Europe, and merchants come from the whole continent who were settling down in Seville to realize its companies. The city became a multicultural center what it would help to the flowering of the arts, especially the architecture, the painting, the sculpture and the literature, playing this way an important role in the Century of Spanish Gold. Famous and productive were the factories of soap that were constituted in the Triana quarter, as well as the craft of the silk (exported to the whole Europe) and the ceramics, which more than fifty factories were telling themselves.
Thanks to the patronage of Catalina de Ribera there is created the Hospital of Five Ulcers, to assemble in the only place the existing sanitary dependencies. Also in the first years of the XVIth century the worry for being provided in Seville with higher education took shape of the foundation of the School Santa Maria of Jesús for Maese Rodrigo Fernández de Santaella. This institution was the germ of the future University of Seville, which, together with the appearance of the printing, propitiated the development of a Sevillian literary world of big importance. Also to the being the port of America was a residence of geographers and cartographers, like Américo Vespucio who was dying in this city on February the 22nd of 1512. On March the 11th of 1526 Carlos I marries in the city Elizabeth de Portugal.
Seville was formed like an important center of the letters. The printing would come to America across the printing from Sevilla of Juan Cromberger. The Seville of the golden Century was provided with the presence of key personages of the universal literature like Mateo Alemán and Miguel de Cervantes.
In 1614 a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga comes to Spain to establish diplomatic relations between Occident and Japan in what it is known as an Embassy of Keisho. The expedition covered the Pacific Ocean up to New Spain and then the Atlantic Ocean up to coming to Andalusia. It mended the Guadalquivir even Coria del Rio and it was first to Seville, then to Madrid to see the King, and then they weighed anchor of Barcelona in the direction of Rome to see the Pope. In the trip back they would visit Spain again but many Japanese decided to remain in Coria del Rio to reside and at present its progeny takes the surname Japan.
In the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries Seville falls down in a deep economic and urban decline. It is suspected that in the big epidemic of pest of 1649 approximately 60.000 persons died, 46 % of the existing population, spending Seville from 130.000 to 70.000 habitantes. Also in this epoch the resistance spirit transforms Seville in a city – convent. In 1671 there existed 45 friars’ monasteries and 28 feminine convents. All the important orders, Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinian and Jesuits, settled in her. The baroque, often religious art, it blooms in painting with names like Valdés Leal, Murillo and Zurbarán and in sculpture with Martínez Montañés and Juan de Mesa. Of this epoch they date a big number of churches and reredoses as well as many of the images, steps and customs of the Sevillian Holy Week.
In May, 1700 there was approved the foundation of the Royal Society of Philosophy and Medicine of Seville, the first one of Spain in its class.
In 1717 the new Bourbon administration arranged the transfer of the House of Hiring of Seville to Cadiz, better port adapted to the transatlantic commerce. Seville loses this way a big part of its economic and political importance. The earthquake of Lisbon of 1755 also felt in the real estate of the city affecting even to the Weather vane and going so far as to cause 9 victims.
The first references of the consumption of tobacco in Spain are testified in Seville. Also the first factory of tobacco of the country settles in this city. It is a question of the Real Factory of Tobacco, which construction begins in 1728 and which is one of the first big projects of industrial building in the modern Europe.
Between 1729 and 1733 king Felipe V initiates a long journey for Andalusia known like Real Period of five years, which will lead him to placing the court in Seville. In this period there is signed the Treaty of Seville of 1729 between Spain, France and England.
With the edition of a newspaper called Sevillian useful Hebdomario in 1758, Seville turns into the Spanish dean of the provincial press.
“In the sunny South Packing Oranges on the Market – place of Seville” Xylography colored to hand of E. Buckman. From the XIXth century the jam reached an enormous popularity in Europe and Seville was formed like a center of important production. The Sevillian jam at present is even requested by the Queen Elizabeth II of England.
The first year of the XIXth century began his Seville with an epidemic of yellow fever that included the whole city, in four months it fulminated to a third of the population.
At the beginning of the XIXth century, in the context of the War of the Spanish Independence the French invasion of Seville takes place. They were the Marshall Claude Perrin Victor (duke of Bellune) with its troops accompanying king José Bonaparte (José I), who occupied it without realizing only one shot on February 1, 1810 after the capitulation was negotiated by some personalities of the city before the above mentioned Marshall to avoid the blood spilling, in spite of that the anti-Napoleonic feeling was widespread.
They were established until August the 27th of 1812, date in which they had to move back after the Battle of the Bridge of Triana, freed by an Anglo-Spanish contingent. The French did not move back without earlier having plundered the city of numerous works by order of the French Marshall Jean de Dieu Soult.
In 1815 the Company of the Guadalquivir is founded, to try to make the river navigable from Seville up to Cordoba with mercantile intentions and of areas population marismeñas that in the end turned out to be a defeat.
From April, 1823 until 11th of June of the same year Seville was the capital of fact of Spain during the entry in Spain of the Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis, a French contingent that would help Fernando VII to restore the absolutism. The arrival of the absolutist troops to Seville motivates that the liberal capital moves to Cadiz, where the liberals will be defeated.
From 1825 during the order of José Manuel Arjona with the collaboration of the biggest architect Melchor Cano, the town-planning politics becomes clear in the city.
In 1833 the administrative province of Seville is created, she was newly proclaimed hereditary Elizabeth II of the throne of Spain. In 1835 with the confiscation of Mendizábal many convents stopped being in hands of religious orders and many works of art that were in these convents and monasteries happened to constitute a Museum of Paintings, which today is the Museum of Fine arts of Seville. In the artistic panorama, the romanticism provoked an attraction on the Andalusian traditions and architecture and Seville was a source of inspiration of Anglo-Saxon painters like Laurence Shand or David Roberts, in addition to a multitude of local authors. In the sevilla of the romanticism Gustavo Adolfo Becquer and its brother Valeriano Becquer would be born.
Come the year 1841, Carlos Pickman founded a ceramics factory (that would turn into the most famous of the city), in one of the monasteries that endured the confiscation, The Carthusian order. It was a productive industry until the year 1980, when it was moved to the municipality of Santiponce to begin the works of conditioning for the celebration of the Universal Exhibition of 1992. In the years that Elizabeth II reigned, the bourgeois class initiated a construction stage without equal in the city. Of that epoch it dates the bridge of Elizabeth II (more known like Triana bridge). The stay of the dukes of Montpensier in the Palace of San Telmo there made look like Seville as if it was the second Court of the Kingdom. During this period the system of illumination was completed and the paving of the streets increased, so that at the beginning of the XXth century practically the whole ancient case was it tile 10
In July, 1843 Seville joined the uprising against the regent general Espartero, whose forces bombarded the city for 10 days without managing surrender.
Towards the second half of the XIXth century the city initiates an expansion rested on the construction of the railroad and making use of the demolition on behalf of its ancient walls. The city grows to the east and the south, it is the nineteenth-century Widening, which completes in the first decades of the XXth century with the buildings constructed owing to the Latin-American Exhibition of 1929 (Square of Spain, Gardens of Maria Luisa). Some facts of this epoch they are following them:
During the Revolutionary Six-year period a cantonal rebellion takes place in June and July, 1873, of federal and social court. The Canton of Seville finally is suppressed by the forces of General Pavía on August 1, 1873.
In 1894 the Sevillian Company of Electricity is created, that was absorbed in 1991 by Endesa.
In 1899 The Mail of Andalusia is founded, dean of the Sevillian press, for the Cardinal Marcelo Spínola.
In 1901 there is inaugurated the train station of Plaza de Armas, with a ship of big dimensions, like the proper ones of of that time, destined to be able to be journeyed and healthy with the step steam locomotives.
During the second half of the XIXth century and the first half of the XXth century awful conditions of the hard-working, working and rural class, they motivated the social movements constitution against the bourgeoisie, the nobility and against the clergy. Nevertheless, a radical minority partial to the propaganda for the fact leads some violent acts, like the explosion of a bomb of low intensity in 1919 during the exit in procession of the Brotherhood of the Big Power or the attempt of murder of the architect Aníbal González in 1920 during a construction strike. The epidemic of flu of 1918 caused the death of between 0,3 % and 0,5 % of the population of the province of Seville, in spite of which it was the province with the lowest mortality of the whole peninsular Spain.
In 1929 Latin-American Exhibition of Seville will be celebrated. This supposes the introduction of important architectural works of Andalusian regionalism, like the constructions of the architect Aníbal González or Juan Talavera y Heredia, and the creation of pavilions with details of the American Indian architecture. The same year the newspaper ABC, a newspaper of national ambience founded in 1903 and edited in Madrid, believe its edition ABC of Seville.
In 1931 there is inaugurated the bridge of San Telmo, who will communicate the center of the city with the Los Remedios quarter.
Stage of II Republic and Civil war (1931-1939)
In the celebrated Municipal Elections on April 12, 1931 the republican parties win in the main Spanish cities. In Seville the republican – Socialist obtain 57 % of the votes per 39 % of the Monarchical Coalition. As a result, king Alfonso XIII takes the way of the exile and II Republic is proclaimed.
In 1931 the army realizes Cornelio gives a gunshot against the House, center of the anarcho-syndicalists, dying all those who were inside. In the place there would be constructed in 1941 the Basilica of the Brotherhood of the Macarena.
The Spanish Civil war affects directly the Andalusian capital, in which already from February, 1936 the coup d’état of the army was growing. On July 18 general Queipo de Llano is done quickly under control of the 2nd Organic Division and of the center of the city. In the popular quarters as Triana and the Of the district of the Macarena one militias of the trade unions are mobilized and parties of left but Queipo are defeated by it by means of a combination of top armament, astuteness and a hard repression. Seville is occupied this way by the participants in a coup at the same time that Cadiz and Algeciras, what provides to Franco a sufficient area to move its Army of Africa by air to Andalusia. Since then Seville happens to be a city of rearguard, acting of bridgehead for the occupation of the rest of the peninsula for the Army of Africa, being most populated of all the cities occupied by the factious army. The repression in the city, between July 18, 1936 and January, 1937, causes the death of 3.028 persons, 40 between them the mayor, Horacio Hermoso Araujo, and the one that was a republican mayor of the city in 1931, José González Fernández de Labandera or the president of the County council, José Manuel Puelles de los Santos.
During the dictatorship of the pro-Franco stage the most powerful authorities of Seville and its province are the military authority personified in the person who occupies the General Captaincy of the II Military Region; the Civil governorship, which in turn is a Provincial Chief of the Movement; and the archbishop, who directs the Diocese of Seville. The mayors of the city during this period are designated of direct form by the minister of the Government, to proposal most of times of the military, political and religious authorities of the city.
As more significant events of this stage stand out between others, the happened one on 13th March of 1941, when there explodes the powder keg of Santa Barbara, located in the Hill of the Eagle, destroying ten apples that were surrounding it and hurting to many other. The street José Arpa, where the powder keg was, remained destroyed, as the streets Huesca, Galicia, Lisbon, Emulation of Bank and part of Heroes of Toledo. The powder keg was not to serve, but of the Spanish Society of Explosives.
Francisco Franco becomes an older brother of the Brotherhood of The Of the district of the Macarena one, which at present carries a military sash. In the Basilica of The Of the district of the Macarena one general Queipo de Llano would be buried in 1951 and in 1964 Franco would come to the canonical coronation of the Virgin of the Of the district of the Macarena one. Franco’s relation with the brotherhoods was narrow, since also he was nominated an older brother of the Sacred Dinner and the Big Power. Also the Brotherhood of the Rummage sale keeps a sash of Franco.
Nevertheless, Franco would not visit Seville very often in consequence, between other causes, of its blood feud with the Cardinal Segura, Archbishop of Seville between 1937 and 1957, who was pleading because Spain was turning into a catholic theocracy and was criticizing openly aptitudes of the Supreme commander as the fact for going under cloak, thing that, for him, only had to reserve Virgin Mary, or which in the walls of the churches the fallens were representing in the edict national.
In the 50´s of the XXth century there were started the Shipyards of Seville, protected by the National Institute of Industry.
The city of Seville was suffering periodically big floods, but perhaps the worst of all there were the floods that took place in November, 1961 when the river bed of the river Tamarguillo overflew as a result of three hundred liters of water per square meter that fell down in a short time period. Entire quarters were affected: The Roadway, the Hill of the Eagle, San Bernardo, The Spring, the Shot of Line, the Door of Sherry, coming the water up to the Bell. Seville was declared a catastrophic area. So many people were the Sevillian ones that remained without hearth that, one month later, there was organized a cavalcade that set off from Madrid: the called Operation Carnation, led by the popular announcer of radio Bobby Deglané and that would finish in tragedy as a result of a plane crash.
In 1955 García Morato inaugurates the Virgin Sanitary Residence of the Dew, named at first like residence. During this stage there took place the biggest town-planning expansion of the city, with the construction of many districts, being the standard-bearer of this type of town-planning development the quarter of Los Remedios, where there moved in 1973 the Real one of the Fair of the Meadow of San Sebastian.
In the decade of the 60s Hispanic Aviación initiates the clandestine organization of the working trade unionism of Seville, concerning Working Commissions, in factories like HYTASA, Shipyards, etc. Several of its leaders were imprisoned, like Fernando Soto, Eduardo Saborido and Francisco Acosta judged in the Process 1001 (November, 1973).
On the 3rd April of 1979 the first democratic municipal elections were celebrated in the whole Spain and in Seville four different political parties obtained rabbit-hutches: Union of Democratic Center (UCD) obtained 9 councilmen, Partido Andalucista, Spanish Working Socialist party (Spanish socialist party) and Communist Party of Spain (CPS). As no party reached sufficient majority to govern a government coalition formed between PSA, Spanish socialist party and CPS, that Luis Uruñuela elected the councilman as a mayor andalucista.
In 1981 Andalusia obtains its Statute of Autonomy and happens to be a Spanish Autonomous region governed by the Meeting of Andalusia. The Palace of San Telmo transformed in head office of the Andalusian government and many hereditary buildings of the city went on to a use for the administration or the parliament of the Meeting of Andalusia. The only organ that did not have its headquarters in Seville was the Superior Court of Andalusia, which has its head office in Granada.
On November the 5th of 1982, pope Juan Pablo II came to Seville and, between other acts, there informed a mass before more than half a million persons in the field of the Fair and celebrated there the Sister’s beatification Ángela of the Cross, founder of the gathering of the Sisters of the Cross. Later he visited the city again on June the 13th, 1993, proceeding to the closing ceremony of the International Eucharistic Congress that was celebrated in Seville. From 1982 to 1996 the Sevillian politician Felipe González occupied the Presidency of the Government of Spain.
In 1992, there was celebrated for six months the Universal Exhibition of Seville, owing to which there was improved greatly the network of infrastructures of communications: beltway SE-30, construction of divided highways, new train station Santa Justa, functioning of the train of Alta Velocidad Española (AVE) Madrid – Seville and construction of a new airport. Of this exhibition, they remain Carthusian order departs from the facilities that were re-turned into the most important technological park of Andalusia, 93, the thematic park Isla Mágica, the monumental Bridge of the Alamillo on the Guadalquivir of the architect Santiago Calatrava and the Bridge of the Boat.
Along these years were different the terrorist attacks that the terrorist group ETA has realized in Seville, emphasizing for its cruelty the murders January, 1998 of the councilman of the People’s Party, Alberto Jiménez-Becerril Barrio and its wife Ascensión García Ortiz and in October, 2000 of the medical colonel Antonio Muñoz Cariñanos. These murders provoked a big pain in the city and impressive declarations against the terrorism member of ETA.
In 1999 the Newspaper of Seville is created, the most important third newspaper of the city, together with The Mail of Andalusia and the ABC of Seville.
The century begins under the order of mayor Alfredo Sánchez Monteseirín (Spanish socialist party), who fills the councillor’s vacancy from June, 1999 with the support of the PA, having been the PP the most adopted party. In 2003 mayor would be invested again, being this time the most adopted candidate, in this case with the support of the town councilors of Izquierda Unida. The result of the elections of May, 2007 confirms the agreement of progress (SPANISH SOCIALIST PARTY-IU) overcoming in votes to the conservative project presented by (PP-PA) staying the last one without representation in the town hall, and obtaining the PP the biggest number of votes of between all the parties with representation in the Consistory. This way Alfredo Sánchez Monteseirín is located like the first mayor who manages to be 3 terms in the power for the first time in the history of the Sevillian democracy despite the candidate most voted for the electorate has been only in an occasion and to the corruption accusations for illegal financing by means of false invoices. In 2011 the People’s Party manages 20 councilmen of 33 and Juan Ignacio Zoido is nominated a mayor.
In June, 2002 there was celebrated in Seville a summit of Heads of state and of Government of the European Union, presided by the president of that time of shift of the European Union and Spanish president, José Maria Aznar. To this meeting there was opposed a series of acts and pacific and multitudinous declarations on the part of groups of alternative and anticapitalist political action. Something similar would happen in the informal Summit of the ministers of the NATO celebrated in Seville in 2007.
In 2003 there begins the construction of the Line again 1 of the Metro of Seville, paralyzed in the 80s after technical difficulties are in the excavation of the Sevillian subsoil, appearing cracks in several historical buildings of the city. With a new project of different tracing to the original (of less urban and more metropolitan approach), the restart of the works saw reached the intense effort of the Society Metro de Sevilla, impelled by the andalucista Alejandro Rojas Marcos and for the team of government, for the one metro attainment for Seville. In 2009 the first metro line is inaugurated.
In 2007 a tram was inaugurated for the center of the city to which his name been Metrocentro and that spread up to the quarter of San Bernardo. A network of bike roads was attacked in the city in 2013 and turning Seville as the fourth best city in the word for the use of bicicles.
They will be realized peatonalizaciones in many areas of the center and will attack public works like Metropol Parasol, a bridge on the Dock of the Guadalquivir in the Park of San Jerónimo, the Park of the Vega of Triana or the enlargement of the Park of the Alamillo and the restoration of patrimony furniture and building. Inside the private works he will emphasize the construction of the Tower Cajasol, a skyscraper that would provoke a polemic that would force mayor Juan Ignacio Zoido to XXXVI go to Saint Petersburg to defend the project before the UNESCO in its meeting.